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彭博社﹕美查斯諾登與中國關係擬列外國間諜案 專家:美陰謀論作下台階 人氣: 1967 回覆: 15


斯諾登匿藏香港引起美國官場質疑中國在泄密事件裏的角色,美國傳媒引述反間諜與刑事調查人員表示,當局以可能涉及外國間諜活動處理斯諾登案,正調查斯諾登是否受中國招攬或利用以披露美國機密監控計劃內情。有國會議員表示擔心斯諾登攜同大量機密文件投靠中國。國際問題專家認為,美方有關言論是希望藉「陰謀論」找下台階,轉移視線。FBI申蒐集斯諾登通訊紀綠

彭博通訊社引述熟悉反間諜調查程序的兩名現任及兩名離職官員透露,當局正採用斯諾登所披露的監控手段,調查他跟中國等外國間諜是否有聯繫。聯邦調查局(FBI)將向境外情報監督法庭(FISC)申請密令,向通訊商蒐集斯諾登電話通訊、電郵、短訊等資訊,並透過分析手機等電子設備定位等調查其行動紀錄。鑑於斯諾登已自稱向傳媒披露了高度機密資料,故法院「幾乎會自動」批准調查。當局又會查探斯諾登有否可疑的財政問題,或有否受性誘或勒索的證據。華府官員聲稱,這些是中國等國家招攬美國人做特務會使用的伎倆。

上述消息人士都強調,他們並沒有斯諾登勾結中國的證據,調查只基於表面證據,包括他在香港尋求庇護及在美國總統奧巴馬向中國國家主席習近平交涉網絡攻擊問題時爆料。他們不排除斯諾登可能純粹如個人所言,只是個「理想主義的爆料人」。美國廣播公司周四引述匿名華府官員稱,對此事可能涉及外國間諜活動的憂慮是「非常合理」的。

美議員促查有否獲中國協助

不少美國議員在周四的情報問題聽證會上,質疑斯諾登與中國政府有不可告人的合作關係。眾議院情報委員會共和黨籍主席羅杰斯(Mike Rogers)說﹕「我們要徹查他跟中國的聯繫是什麼。他為什麼在那裏(香港),他在那裏以何為生,是否獲中國政府協助。」民主黨議員盧帕斯貝格(Dutch Ruppersberger)稱﹕「他選擇到一個每天對我們發動網絡攻擊的國家。他會在中國要求中國政府保護、接受中國傳媒採訪,並不尋常。我們得調查。」

本身為香港浸會大學政治及國際關係副教授的立法會議員陳家洛分析,美方上述言論是試圖藉中美角力轉移視線,但美國政府並非首次被揭發監控,這些言論未必令人信服。中國外交部發言人華春瑩昨在例行記者會上稱,對斯諾登事件仍沒有消息公布,中方會繼續關注事態發展。陳家洛認為,中方迄今表現克制,相信是希望站在道德高地,以保護泄密者的方式獲國際支持。他認為較理想的做法是讓事件循香港司法途徑解決,免卻所有政治壓力。

FBI局長:監控合法 助阻恐襲

FBI局長穆勒(Robert Mueller)在聽證會上重申,當局的監控行動均合法,而且有助制止恐襲。他聲稱,若美國當年有類似監控系統,將可阻止911恐襲,但有議員即時駁斥,指監控措施未能阻止今年4月的波士頓馬拉松襲擊。參議院情報委員會主席范斯坦(Dianne Feinstein)表示,NSA最快於美國時間下周一提交由監控措施遏止的國內外恐襲個案。

(彭博通訊社/金融時報/路透社/衛報)
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英《金融時報》﹕沉默是金 北京明智

【明報專訊】中國外交部迄今拒直接評論斯諾登風波,英國《金融時報》昨形容,北京「沉默是金」是明智之舉,若處理得宜,可令中方看來像是美國在網絡黑客問題上抹黑攻詰的受害者。

《金融時報》發自北京的分析文章稱,「沉默是金」是中國處理麻煩時愛用策略,結果常因無法引導全球輿論站在己方而吃虧,但在斯諾登風波上,中國確實「沉默是金」。文中引述中國人民大學國際關係學者時殷弘稱﹕「中國過往說自己遭到美方黑客攻擊,但從沒說是美國政府所為。現在中方已毋須說明,因為有人已代為說清楚了。這對中國是很好的事,加強了中國的自信。」時殷弘認為,斯諾登的指控將有益於中美關係,「只要美國官員停止公開攻擊中國政府,北京相信就不會再多談美方對中國的攻擊」。

文章同時認為,中美網絡安全爭議不會就此結束,因為斯諾登風波改變的只是公眾輿論,而不是兩國分歧,中方對國民網絡監控的門檻遠低於美國,性質並不相同。《金融時報》社論稱,中國對外國公司進行網絡商業間諜的問題,「不應被美國公民自由的爭議掩蓋」。

《環時》:中方不應將斯諾登交美

《人民日報》旗下《環球時報》昨日發表評論指出,中方不應輕易把斯諾登交給美方,因為斯諾登指控美國攻擊香港和內地網絡,涉及中國國家利益,中國政府「應當讓他講出來」,並根據這些資料對美展開公開或內部交涉。文章認為,這可能也會是華府對待中國叛逃官員的方法,因此中國這樣做不會對中美關係造成衝擊,反而是雙邊關係應有的承受力。文章總結稱,斯諾登是美國的政治犯,但卻在為世界做好事,中方不應讓他最終被證明「選了個『最不該去的地方』」,否則今後不會有各種「走投無路」但有價值的人往中國跑。
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Phones Leave a Telltale Trail
By EVAN PEREZ and SIOBHAN GORMAN

The April robbery at the Cartier store in Chevy Chase, Md., was brazen and quick. After grabbing 13 watches valued at $131,000, the suspects fled in a waiting car and melted into traffic. It was one of more than a dozen similar capers that had stumped police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

But, in recent weeks, the FBI was able to arrest two men. Cellphone records from Deutsche Telekom AG's T-Mobile USA and Sprint Nextel Corp. placed the suspects near the Cartier store at the time of the robbery, as well as near other heists, the FBI alleged in court filings. The T-Mobile records also allegedly showed the phone moving along the same path traveled by the suspects as police chased them.

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Paula Broadwell's affair with former CIA Director David Petraeus was uncovered last year as a result of phone metadata in a stalking inquiry.
This kind of information is at the center of the debate unleashed after a contractor leaked the details of the National Security Agency's phone-data collection program. The NSA program wasn't used in the ongoing robbery investigation, but the concept is the same. The so-called metadata represents one element of the voluminous digital trail left by most Americans in their daily lives. Each individual crumb might seem insignificant, but combined and analyzed, this data gives police and spies alike one of the most powerful investigative tools ever devised.

The data doesn't include the speech in a phone call or words in an email, but includes almost everything else, including the model of the phone and the "to" and "from" lines in emails. By tracing metadata, investigators can pinpoint a suspect's location to specific floors of buildings. They can electronically map a person's contacts, and their contacts' contacts.

More

Senator Discusses Why NSA Powers Should Be Curbed
The Numbers Guy: Ethics Aside, Is NSA's Spy Tool Efficient?
Holder Says Prism Subject to Oversight
Seib & Wessel: The Snowden Affair
The NSA, through secret court orders served to U.S. telecommunications firms, scoops up metadata relating to almost all calls made into and within the U.S., which it can later query as part of a terror investigation. U.S. officials say that kind of work, in concert with other techniques, has helped thwart "dozens" of terrorist plots in the U.S. and overseas. Critics charge it represents an invasion of privacy.

The typical smartphone user can give off a total of nearly 100 pieces of highly technical data through calls, texts and other activities, according to research by Tracy Ann Kosa, a digital-privacy expert at the University of Ontario. This information includes the time that phones make contact with cellphone towers, the direction of the tower with respect to the phone and the signal strength at the time.

Ms. Kosa said much of the data is "insignificant on its own." But "every little piece counts," she said. "Think of it like footsteps—or calories."

One of the most dramatic examples of how metadata can be used came in the criminal investigation that separately uncovered retired Gen. David Petraeus's extramarital affair and ended his tenure as Central Intelligence Agency director.

An FBI investigation into a stalking complaint led agents to obtain location data from email addresses used to send the alleged threats, according to U.S. law-enforcement officials. FBI agents discovered the sender had used computers at a several hotels. Agents asked the hotels to provide lists of guests who'd used business centers around that time. That led them to Paula Broadwell, Mr. Petraeus's biographer. The data was used as probable cause to obtain a court order to monitor Ms. Broadwell's email accounts. Agents soon realized from her emails that the two were having an affair.

Enlarge Image

The woman who received the allegedly harassing emails, Tampa socialite Jill Kelley, said in a lawsuit filed later against the FBI that the bureau's investigation took off after agents took a single IP address from an email sent to her last June. The FBI said it closed the stalking investigation without filing any charges.

A U.S. law-enforcement official said the Petraeus case should not lead to privacy worries. The official said law enforcement is required to have a specific investigative purpose to collect and look at metadata.

Intelligence and law-enforcement agencies have been using metadata in their investigations for decades. Central Intelligence Agency officers routinely rifle through so-called pocket litter found on captured terrorist suspects and give information such as phone numbers to the NSA.

A cat-and-mouse game has evolved, with terror suspects frequently swapping SIM cards, or phone identification cards, to confuse intelligence agencies, former officials said. The U.S. has countered by devising how to monitor the phone and the SIM card separately.

"You keep pulling the thread. It's critical stuff," one former senior intelligence official said. "In every major terrorist operation or capture operation, metadata has played a huge role."

Some of the most important metadata, cellphone location information, varies depending on the area covered by a cell tower. In rural areas, one tower may serve wide swaths of territory, but in urban areas, towers are more targeted.

The number of cellular base stations that serve a single floor of an office building equaled or surpassed the number of standard cell towers in 2010 and continues to grow, University of Pennsylvania engineering professor Matt Blaze told Congress last year.

The increase in metadata has transformed the way intelligence agencies conduct investigations with domestic data. Traditionally, investigators had to meet various legal standards to collect any data, such as connecting the data they wanted to seize with a specific suspect.

Under the NSA phone program, the government collects domestic phone metadata without a specific investigative lead. Trained analysts only search the database in conjunction with a terrorism investigation, authorities say.

Intelligence agencies "basically reimpose at the level of analysis the standards you might ideally have for collection," said Timothy Edgar, a former top national-security privacy lawyer in the Bush and Obama administrations.

Mr. Edgar said the increasingly specific location data raises concerns about potential violations of Fourth Amendment protections against unreasonable searches and seizures. Once a person can be located within a building, the monitoring more closely resembles a search that would traditionally require a warrant.

The NSA program is accompanied by privacy restrictions, Obama administration officials say. To search the database, the government must have "reasonable suspicion" that the basis for the query is "associated with a foreign terrorist organization," they say. Search warrants approved by the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court are required before the contents of the calls may be monitored.

Some useful metadata isn't retained very long by phone companies, according to people familiar with the evidence-gathering. That could explain why in court orders phone companies have been instructed to turn over information daily.

The program's supporters note the Supreme Court has ruled the public has no reasonable expectation of privacy for information it turns over to a third party, such as a phone company. That 1979 ruling, however, predated cellphones. Moreover, cellphone technology has changed dramatically since the inception of the NSA data program in the early 2000s.

"On one hand, this could equip the government to electronically follow you around in public," said Jeremy Bash, until recently Pentagon chief of staff. "But even if they were to physically follow you around, you would not need a warrant for that," he said.

Mr. Bash added it is nonetheless "a fair question" whether metadata should trigger heightened Fourth Amendment scrutiny, because communications technology has changed so much.

"It's possible that 'dataveillance' could come under higher judicial scrutiny," he said, using a new term of art that means the ability to surveil people through their data trail.
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A Call to Arms for Banks\
By MICHAEL R. CRITTENDEN

WASHINGTON—U.S. regulators are stepping up calls for banks to better-arm themselves against the growing online threat hackers and criminal organizations pose to individual institutions and the financial system as a whole.

The push comes as government officials grow increasingly concerned about the ability of a cyber attack to cause significant disruptions to the financial system. Banks such as J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., Bank of America Corp. BAC -1.06% and Capital One Financial Corp. COF -2.15% have been targeted by cyber assaults in recent years, including potent "denial-of-service" strikes that took down some bank websites off-and-on for days, frustrating customers. Banks have spent millions of dollars responding to or protecting against such attacks, including a wave of attempted online assaults targeting major banks beginning last year that U.S. defense officials say had the backing of the Iranian government.


Regulators are warning banks to better-arm themselves against the online threat from hackers. U.S. authorities intensify efforts to find Americans hiding money in tax havens. Photo: Getty Images.
The warnings reinforce the message from Washington that the private sector has primary responsibility for fending off attacks, even from groups the U.S. believes are tied to a foreign government. Some banks have bristled at the suggestion they can fend off a foreign nation and have asked the U.S. to intervene to mitigate such attacks, either by blocking the attacks or moving against those mounting them.

A banking industry official said the onus can't just be on banks to combat cyber attacks. "It needs to be collaborative; the industry can't take on foreign countries alone," the official said.

The U.S. has increasingly adopted a hard line toward firms whose systems are violated, holding companies more accountable for protecting themselves. Last year, the Federal Trade Commission filed a lawsuit against Wyndham Worldwide Corp. WYN -0.86% alleging the hotel chain failed to protect the credit-card information of its consumers. In 2011, the Securities and Exchange Commission issued guidance requiring companies to disclose to investors more details when their computer systems have come under attack by hackers.

Regulators and the banking industry are coordinating efforts to respond to the growing threat, including a major cyber "war game" exercise slated for later this month involving top regulators, the Department of Homeland Security and major banks. Organized by the Securities Industry and Financial Management Association and titled "Quantum Dawn 2," the exercise is supposed to replicate a large, coordinated cyber attack to test the industry's response.

Officials from the Treasury Department and other financial regulators have been conducting regular classified and non-classified briefings with bank officers about the increased likelihood banks of all sizes could come under attack. Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew last week met with roughly 40 executives in New York to discuss concerns, one in a series of meetings Mr. Lew has had on the topic with government and business leaders, according to the Treasury Department.

Last week, the Federal Reserve and other banking regulators formed a new "cyber security" working group to highlight the issue and better coordinate government responses. And earlier this week, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency hosted a call with more than 1,000 community bankers, warning that cyber attacks are on the rise—particularly among small banks—as the number of potential targets expands.

"You have to think of cyber-risk as part of the other overall risks at your bank," said Valerie Abend, the OCC's senior critical infrastructure officer.

Regulators are counseling bank executives to change the way they think about cyber attacks, she said, and consider them as they do more traditional risks, such as lending and interest-rate risk, when making strategic decisions. As with regulators' recent push to step up enforcement of antimoney-laundering rules, banks are being told that they'll be judged on their preparation against cyber attacks when examiners gauge a bank's operational risk. Executives are being told to train workers on potential risks posed by hackers, and to be proactive in communicating risks to customers and employees.

The Financial Stability Oversight Council, which Mr. Lew leads, cited cyber security as one of its key "emerging threats" this year. Mr. Lew raised the issue of cyber theft of trade secrets with his Chinese counterparts on a recent visit to Beijing.

While no specific incident is behind the focus on cyber security, regulators are concerned that the number of cyber attacks spawned by increasingly sophisticated hackers, criminal organizations, hactivist groups and nation-states is going to rise. The OCC said in its presentation to bankers that cyber attacks overall, including on banks, increased 42% in 2012, ranging from malicious software or phishing attacks, to well-publicized denial-of-service attacks.

The threat became apparent late last year when Iranian hackers conducted a wave of cyber attacks targeting major U.S. banks. The attacks disrupted banks' websites, flooding them with high volumes of traffic in order to render them unavailable, and leading to warnings from U.S. officials to halt.

Karl Schimmeck, SIFMA's vice president of financial-services operations, said the industry needs to gird itself for the reality of cyber incursions.

"We're a big target…. People don't go out and physically rob banks anymore. This is the best way to get access to what banks have" including money and critical information, Mr. Schimmeck said.
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Hong Kong (CNN) -- When U.S. citizen Edward Snowden decided to flee to Hong Kong because of its "spirited commitment to free speech and the right of political dissent," he may not have anticipated that some in the city would launch a protest backing him.
Several hundred demonstrators took to Hong Kong's streets in the rain Saturday voicing support for Snowden a week after the 29-year-old computer technician, who is believed to be hiding out somewhere in the city, revealed himself as the source of leaked documents exposing an international surveillance program of internet and telephone communications operated by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
The revelation of his presence -- as well as his claims that Hong Kong had been subject to the surveillance -- has sparked heated speculation whether Hong Kong, a special administrative region -- one that is semi-autonomous -- of the People's Republic of China, would prove to be a safe haven for him. Snowden said his intention was to "ask the courts and people of Hong Kong to decide my fate."
Former U.S. spy talks Snowden's future Support for Edward Snowden in Hong Kong Snowden: U.S. hacked targets in China Could the NSA leaker defect to China?
"We're rallying in order not to disappoint him and to ask Hong Kong to protect his well-being, not to extradite him, and to uphold Hong Kong law," said blogger, activist and protest organizer Tom Grundy.
Amid the blowing of whistles and chants of "Protect Snowden!" and "NSA has no say!" the protest brought together representatives from 27 civil rights, labor rights, and left-wing democratic groups, as well as many ordinary members of the public as well as media. Under the drizzling sky, protesters determined to show their support held laminated placards and umbrellas painted with slogans.
Adi Koul and Jesus Meza, students from the University of Texas at Austin who are studying abroad in Hong Kong, said they found the protest "really refreshing."
"As Americans, it's kind of disheartening to know [the surveillance program] is going on behind our backs and we don't have a say in it," said Koul. "It's empowering to see people who aren't necessarily American fighting for something they feel is a universal human right."
Ruth Jopling brought her daughters, Amber, aged eight, and three-year-old Jade, along to the protest; the children held cut-out masks on sticks bearing Snowden's image. "It's not just about our generation, but the next generation as well," Jopling said. Amber echoed her mother's sentiment: "When I grow up, I can tell my children about this."
Organizers claimed an overall turnout of 900 protesters; police said the demonstration had a peak turnout of 300 -- a relatively small showing compared to major protests in Hong Kong, which have attracted hundreds of thousands of people. Grundy said plans for the protest only began on Monday, and that he would be pleased if 1,000 people turned out in the end.
The three-hour protest, which kicked off in a garden in the city's business district and went on to the U.S. consulate and the Hong Kong government headquarters, failed to gain a strong sense of momentum, hampered in part by the narrow looping route allocated by the city's authorities. At each rallying point, only a small group was able to gather around to hear the keynote speakers; most protesters were relegated to standing single or double file some distance away. By the time the protest moved outside the government headquarters to deliver an open letter to the city's leader, Chief Executive C.Y. Leung, the crowd had dropped to about 100 people.
Snowden's arrival in the city has heightened simmering fears about the ever-encroaching hand of Beijing in the city's affairs and freedoms.
While Hong Kong has its own de facto constitution, judiciary, and legal system under the "one country two systems" policy, a deep mistrust runs in the city toward the government under Leung, who is widely viewed as being under the thumb of the Chinese central government.
In a televised interview with Bloomberg Wednesday, Leung repeatedly insisted he "does not comment on individual cases," when asked how Hong Kong would handle Snowden's case. His stonewalling infuriated many Hong Kongers.
"Judging from [this interview], I think he's waiting for instructions from Beijing," said Oiwan Lam, a blogger and activist with in-media, the civil advocacy group that organized the protest with Grundy.
Holder: Leaks 'extremely damaging' Vetting federal contractors Inside the mind of Edward Snowden NSA leaker, girlfriend still in hiding
According to Hong Kong law, if the U.S. was to request the city to surrender Snowden, Beijing could step in only if its defence or foreign affairs would be significantly affected by Hong Kong's actions. Beijing is not allowed to interfere with any asylum proceedings.
Nevertheless, many have expressed fears that Beijing will quietly influence Hong Kong's handling of Snowden's case.
"Hong Kong's decisions are all based on the Chinese government," said Sherry Hung, 24, a graduate student at Hong Kong Baptist University. "I don't think Hong Kong can help Snowden," she added, although she said it was important to show her support at the protest.
Others also note that Hong Kong has a track record of cooperating with the United States. In particular, they fear Hong Kong will not respect due process in the Snowden case, instead enabling him to be quietly whisked away. Local media in Hong Kong last year reported on the case of a Libyan dissident who launched legal action against the city's government, accusing them of aiding in his "extraordinary rendition" and subsequent torture in prison.
"The biggest Western government -- the U.S government -- is his enemy. Now he can only count on us, the power of Hong Kong civil society and our legal system," Ip Lam Chong of in-media told protesters. "I see this incident as a stress test for Hong Kong society and its legal system."
Claudia Mo, a member of the Hong Kong legislature who addressed the protesters, said the city of Hong Kong "owes Snowden at least some response."
"The U.S is supposed to be the champion of democracy, but it's been conducting blanket surveillance on a global scale," she said. "If the guy at the top has access to all our lines of communication, how is... anyone ever going to start a revolution?"
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民調:半數香港市民反對引渡斯諾登

香港《星期日南華早報》委托進行的民調顯示,接近一半受訪香港市民反對港府把美國中央情報局前雇員斯諾登引渡回美國。
該報委托香港中文大學傳播與民意調查中心進行的民調以電話訪問了509名市民,當中有49.9%人士「反對」或「強烈反對」政府在美國的正式要求下交出斯諾登。
相關内容
香港數百人遊行支持斯諾登
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論壇:從中情局洩密事件看言論自由
相關新聞話題
香港, 互聯網, 美國, 中美關係
根據民調結果,只有17.6%受訪者認為應該引渡斯諾登,其餘受訪人士則拒絕回答或尚未決定立場。
調查並稱,有33%受訪人士把斯諾登視為英雄,12.8%市民卻形容他為叛徒,另外也有23%受訪者把斯諾登定位在「介乎兩者之間」。
報道說,這項調查顯示,不同年齡層和教育背景的香港市民在斯諾登事件上都持有相近立場。
周六,香港20多個團體約數百人參加遊行,要求保護藏身香港的斯諾登,以及呼籲捍衛自由和人權。
梁振英回應

香港行政長官梁振英此前在美國接受媒體訪問時多次拒絕評論斯諾登事件遭到抨擊,一些抗議人士在遊行中諷刺梁振英是「無意見先生」。
就在當天晚上游行結束後,梁振英發表聲明表示,當相關機制啟動後,政府將按香港的法律和既定程序處理斯諾登事件。
對於有香港立法會議員指出政府有責任向市民公布被索取的資料,聲明說,「港府亦會跟進任何香港機構或香港人的私隱或其他權利被侵犯的事件」。
然而,公民黨議員梁家傑認為,拒絕美國引渡要求的權力全在於中央政府手中。
斯諾登上周向《南華早報》表示,他希望由香港的法庭和人民來決定其命運。
斯諾登說,他曾經有多次機會可以逃離香港,但是他寧可留下在法庭上與美國政府對抗,因為他對香港的法治有信心。
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英截取光纖資訊監控民眾
英國《衞報》昨日(周五)再公開美國中情局叛諜斯諾登(Edward Snowden)的洩密內容,指英國「政府通訊總部」(GCHQ)截取經光纖纜線傳輸的平民電郵、通話內容等個人資訊,每天處理多達6億個電話通訊及2,100萬GB數據,再與美國國家安全局(NSA)共享資料,全球無數人受影響。斯諾登形容:「英國的監控比美國更惡劣。」

英國截取光纖資料的行動代號「時代(Tempora)」,在民眾不知情下已運作約18個月,主要是掌控全球互聯網和電訊資料,截取內容包括電話通話錄音、電郵內容、社交網站facebook的留言甚至瀏覽歷史,內容更與美、加、澳、紐四國共享,受影響的人包括無辜的平民。GCHQ的律師也坦言,不可能有受監視民眾的數字,「因為這會是個無限名單」。


每天處理2,100萬GB數據

斯諾登形容,英國侵私隱的程度比美國更嚴重,他說:「這不只是美國的問題,英國也有巨犬打這場仗。」斯諾登洩露的文件顯示,計劃可怕的地方是GCHQ有能力處理海量數據,規模比NSA更大。GCHQ去年就截取多達200條光纖纜,可同時處理至少46條,以每條光纖纜每秒傳輸約10GB資料計,理論上每天可處理約2,100萬GB數據,相當於每24小時傳送大英圖書館所有書籍所有內容192次。
電話資料方面,GCHQ去年平均每天可處理達6億個電話通訊,除了監控數據和資料外,更可儲存至少三天,若只牽涉聯絡資訊的元數據(metadata),儲存期限更長達30天。
截至去年5月,GCHQ及NSA分別有300及250名分析員處理和分析這些資料。但值得留意的是,NSA及外判商有多達85萬人都有權限登入GCHQ的數據庫,換言之,平民私隱隨時暴露在他們眼前。

發牌條件 電訊商被迫配合

有別於美國稜鏡行動只涉及相關跨國科技公司的伺服器,「時代」行動是直接從光纖電纜截取資訊。由於英國位處大西洋海底光纖纜線的上岸地,坐擁地理優勢,只要在橫跨大西洋的光纖電纜安裝攔截探測器,就可以輕易截取由北美傳輸到西歐的電話通話及互聯網數據。至於光纖電訊商何以屈服?《衞報》引述消息指,他們都被迫配合政府,還不得向外透露半句,「配合政府是發牌的首要條件,若他們不想也被迫這樣做,他們根本別無選擇」。
不過有熟悉行動的人士解釋,其實「時代」行動如大海撈針,不會任何資料都看,一定是有線索才追查,他說:「若你以為我們看數以百萬計電郵,告訴你我們不是的……一定涉及安全、恐襲、有組織罪案或經濟問題等,其餘很多資料是不用看就丟棄的。」
文件聲稱,「時代」行動成功搗破英國一個恐怖組織,和阻截2012年一宗計劃向倫奧發動襲擊的陰謀,拘捕三人。GCHQ拒絕回應事件,由於美國法例要求情報報門要取得秘密法院許可才能收集個人資訊,有輿論更質疑美國借英國違法收集情報,但NSA發言人否認指控,強調不會依賴盟友「走法律罅」。
英國《衞報》/美聯社/法新社/路透社
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肆意監控、竊取資訊的,原來不只政府,英國多間律師行、電訊公司和保險公司,被揭習慣聘請私家偵探,偷竊、騙取競爭對手的情報,以至普羅大眾的資料,更離譜的是,嚴重有組織罪案調查局(SOCA)六年前已得知情況,卻坐視不理。
英國《獨立報》取得有「英國FBI」之稱的SOCA2008年機密報告,顯示聘偵探竊密的顧客,80%是律師行、個人和保險公司,20%則是傳媒。當中又以律師行最猖獗,尤其是專辦有錢人離婚及為顧客調查詐騙事件的律師行。
這些私家偵探做的,包括竊聽留言、闖入電腦、賄賂警方,還會實時截聽目標的通話;偵探更有《行騙指南》,描述如何透過電話,向私人公司、銀行、稅局、海關、公用服務以至國民保健制度,套取個別人士的資料。其中一個個案,委託人花費1.4萬鎊(約16.7萬港元),要求調查欠債公司老闆的家庭狀況、銀行戶口和信用卡使用詳情,以至手機賬單。
SOCA去年曾把報告,私下交予上訴法院法官萊韋森,他受委託調查英國報業操守,在調查報告卻沒披露傳媒以外行業的竊密情況。SOCA和蘇格蘭場都拒絕評論事件。
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美國總統奧巴馬(Barack Obama)一再強調情報機構的監控計劃有嚴密監管,未經授權不能任意截取通訊資料,但英國《衞報》再拋出秘密文件,證明奧巴馬政府有意隱瞞,NSA在沒有法庭手令下可照樣取得資訊;法庭手令規限寬鬆用語空泛,令監管形同虛設。

資料可保存五年

《衞報》披露呈交美國外國情報監控法庭(FISA)的兩份秘密文件,詳情講述NSA監視非美國民眾的守則,以及「最低限度」蒐集美國民眾資料的程序,顯示NSA的權限其實十分寬闊。
文件顯示,NSA「無意間」蒐集到的美國民眾通訊,若認為涉及犯罪活動資料、有用情報、危害民眾或產業,就可以截取和使用。這些資料最長可保存五年。
奧巴馬政府一再強調不會蒐集民眾通訊內容,但文件顯示,若情報人員認為監視目標身在美國,或有助評估未來的監視計劃,即可以查閱通訊內容。至於決定監視誰,酌情權主要落在分析員手上,不必法庭或高層主管批核。
雖然FISA法庭有規定,若NSA發現監視目標是美國民眾時要立即停止監視,但這項守則有許多縫隙可以鑽。例如若沒資料顯示目標人物是美國民眾,分析員即可「假設」對方是外國人,這項停止監管機制也不適用於「大範圍資訊」蒐集。
美國前總統克林頓指華府截取通訊資料反恐是「正當的」,但前提是當局行使權力要「負責任和透明」,形容目前情況「含糊、不明確、令人不舒服」。
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反「法外監視」鬥士掌FBI \\

美國總統奧巴馬前日(周五)連環出擊,一面提名反對「法外監視」鬥士、前司法部副部長科米(James Comey)出任聯邦調查局(FBI)局長,以示捍衞法治;一面首度與美國獨立機構、個人隱私與公民自由監督理事會召開閉門會議,為監控風波解畫。
52歲的科米,在美國司法界有「鬥士」稱譽,2004年時任司法部長阿什克羅夫特入院時,他以副部長身份署任,拒絕應白宮要求繼續授權實施「法外監視」;白宮官員於是繞過他,直奔阿什克羅夫特病房要求授權,科米隨後也直奔病房,不惜以辭職抗議,最終令上司同樣回絕白宮要求。
奧巴馬在白宮宣佈提名科米接任今年9月退休的穆勒出任聯邦調查局局長時,讚揚科米經驗豐富,不屈服於政治壓力;又指科米深知在危機時,美國政府的表現不僅以防止多少恐襲陰謀為準,也要以擁護美國憲法、捍衞民權為己任。奧巴馬前日又跟隱私監督理事會密會一句鐘,白宮官員形容雙方就捍衞國家安全及保障私隱的兩大任務,進行坦誠交流。
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標榜尊重用戶私隱的社交網站facebook前日(周五)宣佈,因為網站程式漏洞,洩露了600萬個用戶的電話號碼及電郵,但fb在發現後24小時已堵塞了相關的漏洞,強調影響輕微。
不少fb用戶會於個人檔案(profile)加入電郵及電話號碼,只要選擇不公開,理論上其他用戶無法讀取這些資料。但他們上載聯絡名單或電郵地址時,fb會利用這些資料,試圖跟其他用戶的聯絡名單作比對,以作出好友推薦。因為軟件漏洞,其他用戶的電郵地址和電話號碼卻會儲存到他們的戶口內。

私隱漏洞已堵塞

當有用戶利用下載訊息(Download your information)工具時,他們就會收到其他用戶的電郵地址和電話號碼。fb昨日發現相關的漏洞,已於24小時內作出修正。受影響的用戶,已經收到電郵通知,相信資料未有落入不法之徒手中。有香港網民表示,昨日早上9時收到facebook電郵,指相信她的個人聯絡資料被一個fb用戶意外讀取。
fb主動對外公佈事件,指該網站在全球有多達10億名用戶,今次只涉及600萬人,而且外洩的資料都是屬於跟用戶本身有某些聯繫的人,影響雖不算嚴重,但已足令fb感到尷尬。
fb今次私隱漏洞是參與該公司白帽黑客計劃(White hat hacker)的道德黑客揭發,每次成功揭發者可收至少500美元(3,900港元)。
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美揭入侵清華網絡

控斯諾登3宗罪 促港暫拘留



【明報專訊】美國傳媒報道,美國政府原來早於一個多星期前(6月14日)、即前中情局僱員斯諾登(Edward Snowden)身分曝光後5日對他提出刑事起訴,指控他盜竊政府財產及兩項間諜罪,若判罪分開執行,罪成最高可囚30年。據知,美方並向港方發出臨時拘捕斯諾登的要求,警務處長曾偉雄昨拒評論事件,強調是按本港法例而非外國法例辦事。





《南華早報》網站昨晚披露,按斯諾登提供的資料,發現美國政府曾大規模入侵內地主要電訊網絡以取得短訊內容,並持續攻擊清華大學主幹網路(backbone),最近一次是1月,單日最少63部電腦或伺服器受攻擊;另有入侵互聯網服務供應商亞太環通(Pacnet)在香港總部的電腦。


侵電訊網取短訊內容


對於有報章稱斯諾登入住本港警方「安全屋」,早前曾訪問斯諾登的《南華早報》透露,周五度過30歲生日的斯諾登目前沒有被扣留,也沒有接受警方保護,正身處香港一個「安全地方」。


沒被扣留 沒接受警方保護


該報昨披露美國監控計劃針對香港、內地及區內行動的細節,包括密集攻擊清華大學的網絡,入侵亞太環通(Pacnet)在香港總部的電腦。亞太環通目前擁有區內其中一個最大的海底電纜網絡。報道稱,斯諾登於6月12日的訪問中說,「美國國家安全局做了各樣的事,例如入侵中國流動網絡供應所,偷取你所有的手機短訊」。手機短訊是內地最常用溝通工具,市民及官員都使用,短訊內容包括官方對話或閒談。


對於美方向斯諾登提出3項控罪起訴,資深大律師、公民黨黨魁梁家傑稱,按以往案例,美國在發出逮捕令前,應已要求香港律政司國際法律事務部協助。他認為,斯諾登可以指事件涉政治檢控,不應被遣返作為抗辯,估計若最終上訴至終審法院,法律程序可長達3年。斯諾登亦可根據聯合國《難民公約》申請成為難民,或申請酷刑聲請自保。


3罪最高各判10年


前保安局長、現行政會議成員葉劉淑儀稱,根據《逃犯條例》,港府應先通知中央政府,並由律政司確定有關控罪是否符合兩地的互助協議。


《華盛頓郵報》昨引述多名官員透露,聯邦檢察官入稟弗吉尼亞東區法院,對泄露美國監控國民通訊計劃的斯諾登提出刑事起訴。該法庭曾審理多宗涉及國家安全的訴訟。


入稟狀只有1頁,列明斯諾登所涉3項罪行,包括未經授權泄露國防資料、向未獲授權人士泄露機密情報,以及盜竊政府財產。前兩項罪名源自美國1917年實施的《間諜法》,3項罪行最高刑罰均為判囚10年,美國司法部對此拒絕置評。


港府未決定前 斯仍可出境


根據香港《逃犯條例》,香港警方必須得到法院手令才可拘捕斯諾登,啟動程序主要有兩做法,一是特首在諮詢中央人民政府後,對美國的引渡要求提出授權進行書,法院依此發出拘押令;另一方法是警方向法院申請臨時手令,惟特首可取消該臨時手令(見圖)。換言之,在港府未決定引渡前,斯諾登仍可自由行動,包括出境。


港府是否啟動引渡命令,最終決定權在中央人民政府,根據法例,港府必須就啟動法律程序、決定引渡的地點,以及決定引渡的方法這3個階段,向中央政府通報,而中央政府可以對外交或國防有重大影響為由,隨時指令特首停止引渡安排。保安局長黎棟國拒絕評論有否收到美國引渡斯諾登的要求。
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清華網絡「骨幹」 連接內地科研網
【明報專訊】美國前中情局僱員斯諾登表示,美國入侵在亞洲擁有多條海底電纜的電訊商Pacnet的香港總部,而黑客亦不時攻擊北京清華大學的「骨幹」(network backbones)。香港Pacnet總部經營至少10年,有6條海底電纜接駁各地,香港三成對外通訊經這批電纜。立法會資訊科技界議員莫乃光指出,清華大學負責管理內地的中國教育和科研電腦網(CERNET),而CERNET連接內地多間大學及研究機構,懷疑因此成為攻擊目標。



莫乃光表示,Pacnet最少有一條接駁海外的海底電纜登陸點位於將軍澳。他解釋,網路骨幹(Network backbones)有如水管,是傳輸數據的管道,不儲存任何資料,但對方可在傳輸過程中截取數據。清華大學並負責管理的CERNET的主要網路骨幹,連接內地多間教育及科研機構。據CERNET網頁資料,CERNET其他次要的網絡中心分佈全國數十間大學,包括北京大學、上海交通大學等。


Pacnet私營海底纜 亞太區最大


根據Pacnet的公司網頁,Pacnet經營亞太區最大的私營海底電纜系統,全長36,800公里,覆蓋日本、韓國、香港、台灣、菲律賓、新加坡和中國。
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落案1周港未行動 京靜觀其變

【明報專訊】美國司法部早於6月14日已向當地法院正式落案控告斯諾登泄露政府機密,但遲至21日才正式對外公開控罪書資料,這關鍵的一個星期裏,美方向香港特區政府提出了司法協助要求,希望香港根據美港移交逃犯協議拘捕斯諾登,但拘捕行動一直沒有發生,反映特區和中央政府猶豫未決,控罪書公布後,輿論壓力立即移到港府身上,是否答應美方要求向法院申請拘捕令扣押斯諾登,好歹要有個決定。 沒必要太早阻美要求


據熟悉美港引渡協議的人士指出,中央政府可以在申請臨時拘捕令之前,以至最終決定遣送離境之間的任何時候,指示香港特首不作引渡,因為引渡影響中國的國防或外交利益,客觀現實上似乎沒有必要太早阻截美方的引渡要求,如果北京從一開始就反對引渡,等如把拒絕引渡的政治責任全盤攬上身,勢必對中美關係造成一定的衝擊。


交法院審理 顯司法獨立


如果北京不介入,香港特區政府將按既定程序向法院申請臨時拘捕令,斯諾登及其律師團隊必然會提出反對,例如申請人身保護令或司法覆核,指引渡斯諾登是政治迫害,是政治難民而非刑事罪犯,法院將會仔細聽取雙方的理據,事件會拖延幾個月甚至更長時間,這樣可以突顯香港是司法獨立的社會,北京亦毋須即時承擔拒絕美國要求的政治責任。


假如日後斯諾登勝訴,美國引渡失敗便與北京無關;假如斯諾登敗訴,特區政府依法要將他送去美國,北京權衡利害後若認為應該引渡,可以與美方討價還價,以引渡斯諾登來換取對中國有利的條件,若北京認為不應該引渡,在最後一刻仍可以給指示特首終止引渡。


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港府放人 北京高招

美國官員廿三日對於香港政府放走了美國國安局洩密案主角史諾登深感不滿,但媒體及分析家指出,中國大陸選擇當下惹惱美國,但避免此事進一步破壞中美關係,實是高著兒。

美司法部官員廿三日表示,該部自六月十日得知史諾登藏身香港,就「連續不斷」與香港司法當局接觸,查詢逮捕與引渡之事,港府一概答說,正在「審查」此案,廿一日才通知美國補件,而史諾登廿三日離港赴俄。

美國司法部在聲明中說:「在雙方截至廿一日以前的所有交涉過程中,香港當局從未對美方要求臨時逮捕史諾登提出任何質疑。基於此點,我們發現這項決定特別令人費解。」

香港特首梁振英廿四日說,史諾登廿三日經合法管道自行離港時,港府正在處理美國提出的臨時拘捕令,無任何法律依據阻止他離港。梁振英還說,他能理解包括美國政府在內部分美國人因此感到不悅。

多家香港及大陸報刊都說,值此習近平政府尋求與美國啟動新關係之際,若讓史諾登的去留變得更棘手,北京一點好處都沒有。大陸環球時報就在社論中說:「史諾登離港將避免中美關係受到影響。」

香港南華早報也在社論中說,對香港和大陸來說,史諾登走人是再好不過的結果。

至於放走史諾登究竟是香港或中國大陸的決定,法新社引述香港立法會議員何俊仁的話說,他有理由相信,北京當局希望史諾登離開香港。


全文網址: 港府放人 北京高招 | 史諾登風暴 | 全球觀察 | 聯合新聞網 http://udn.com/NEWS/WORLD/WORS1/7985293.shtml#ixzz2XFmcvXkB
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俄羅斯外長拉夫羅夫今天斷然拒絕依美國要求,引渡美國國家安全局(NSA)承包公司前雇員史諾登(Edward Snowden),並抨擊華盛頓當局指控莫斯科協助史諾登逃亡的說法。

拉夫羅夫(Sergei Lavrov)在記者會堅稱,俄國與史諾登逃亡一事無關;他也不願說明史諾登的去處。不過,對於美國要求俄國引渡史諾登,並警告俄方若不從可能造成負面後果,他憤怒批評反擊。

他表示,「有人意圖怪罪俄羅斯違反美國律法、甚至和史諾登同謀,我們認為這絕對沒有根據,而且令人無法接受」;他並抱怨這些指控還伴隨著「威脅」。

拉夫羅夫說:「我們絕未牽涉史諾登先生或他與美國司法當局的關係,也與他在世界各地的活動毫無關連。」

拉夫羅夫並未證實或否認史諾登是否如先前所報導,23日從香港搭機並降落在莫斯科的謝瑞米提耶佛機場(Sheremetyevo Airport);但他堅稱史諾登沒有跨過俄羅斯邊界離開機場。

拉夫羅夫告訴記者:「他自己選擇何去何從。我們也是由媒體報導得知這些事。他沒有跨過俄羅斯的邊界。」

俄羅斯新聞社援引消息人士的話報導,史諾登23日晚間抵達謝瑞米提耶佛機場後,至少在過境區1家飯店度過一夜;史諾登在過境區無需以護照通關,或是取得俄國簽證。

機場消息人士今天表示,史諾登23日下午從香港搭機抵達莫斯科,預計隔天離開並前往古巴首都哈瓦那,但他並未使用這張機票。

消息人士說,史諾登的逃亡之旅途中,有哈里森(Sarah Harrison)作陪。任職反保密組織維基解密(WikiLeaks)的哈里森,是英國籍法律研究人員。

消息人士說:「她(哈里森)和史諾登在23日下午5時前後,一起從香港抵達莫斯科。兩人都有24日赴哈瓦那(Havana)的機票,但都沒有使用。」

白宮稍早前敦促莫斯科當局,研究驅逐史諾登的所有可行方案,以將他遣送回美國。美國國務卿凱瑞則對俄國顯然在此事扮演一角表示憤慨。

然而,拉夫羅夫抨擊華盛頓當局,並且駁斥莫斯科當局和史諾登人間蒸發有關的說法。拉夫羅夫說:「美國官員這般行徑並不合理。」


全文網址: 俄羅斯外長駁斥美指控 拒引渡史諾登 | 史諾登風暴 | 全球觀察 | 聯合新聞網 http://udn.com/NEWS/WORLD/WORS1/7987154.shtml#ixzz2XFmgELpq
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